Posted on Leave a comment

The scientist who discovered CRISPR is from Spain

Francis Mojica, the Spanish Scientist Who Discovered CRISPR. Against common belief a hard-working Spanish scientist specialized in bacteria discovered the CRISPR mechanism.

So he put the name now is of public domain and the core discovery that was linking that molecule in some bacteria for cutting a virus DNA so the bacteria “learned” on how to defend.

By the way the prelude and foundations for posterior great discoveries on eukaryotes leading by Emanuelle Charpentier and Jennifer Doudna.

I personally think Mojica should be recognized as the same way as Jennifer and Emanuelle.

What is CRISPR?

With CRISPR is possible to edit genes, at any point from embryos to organs and tissues, with a wide range from the Eukaryotes and Prokaryotes.

You can read:

https://www.forbes.com/sites/jvchamary/2020/10/07/crispr-genome-editing-nobel-prize/?sh=58ed281c2d32

The scientist that discovered CRISPR - Francis Mojica
The scientist that discovered CRISPR – Francis Mojica
Posted on Leave a comment

CRISPR last Update

XINHUA/INSTITUTE OF NEUROSCIENCE/CHINESE ACADEMY OF SCIENCES/REDUX

CRISPR is the game changing technology. A millennial disruptor. A new Era was settled for: biology, chemistry, and for all science. Now the doors of possibilities and perception are open.

Top news of CRISPR February 2021

TALEN gene editing tool more efficient than CRISPR-Cas9 in compact DNA: study

Scientists at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign found that the gene editing tool TALEN is up to five times more efficient than CRISPR-Cas9 in parts of the genome called heterochromatin. (LionFive/Pixabay)[1]

Scientists at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign found that the gene editing tool TALEN is up to five times more efficient than CRISPR-Cas9 in parts of the genome called heterochromatin. (LionFive/Pixabay)[1]

So first how can we define CRISPR for Genetic Modification

A CRISPR definition of genetic modification

Gene editing techniques have the potential to substantially accelerate plant breeding. Now, officials in the United States and Europe are arguing that it is not genetic modification — and that is a good thing![2]

So all organisms created with CRISPR are GMO’s?

Here an answer of the USDA:

The United States takes an essentially functional view of GMOs, not concerning itself with the technologies that created the animals or plants but rather what the effects of the manipulations have been. The USDA statement further clarifies, “Under its biotechnology regulations, USDA does not currently regulate, or have any plans to regulate plants that could otherwise have been developed through traditional breeding techniques as long as they are developed without the use of a plant pest as the donor or vector and they are not themselves plant pests[3]

What animals or plants (or variations) have been created from CRISPR

Is there actually teams of scientists working with animals embryos modified with CRISPR CAS, or working with plants to actually solve the world need for more, quality and healthy food?

China’s CRISPR push in animals promises better meat, novel therapies, and pig organs for people

China is leading CRISPR research with his: Yunnan Key Laboratory of Primate Biomedical Research.

How to protect animals that are under scientific research?

How to protect animals that are under scientific research?
How to protect animals that are under scientific research?

The most startling part of what is coming out of China is seeing how they have just a brute-force approach. The level of animal support they have to do those experiments is really astounding.Jon Hennebold, Oregon National Primate Research Center[4]

Jon Hennebold, Oregon National Primate Research Center

References

[1]Liu, A. (2021, January 28). TALEN gene editing tool more efficient than CRISPR-Cas9 in compact DNA: study. FierceBiotech. https://www.fiercebiotech.com/research/talen-gene-editing-tool-more-efficient-than-crispr-cas9-certain-dna-study

[2]A CRISPR definition of genetic modification. (2018, May 3). Nature Plants. https://www.nature.com/articles/s41477-018-0158-1?error=cookies_not_supported&code=4179bde2-e2bc-4e21-90c7-d6106f1aa826

[3][4] Ibid

Posted on Leave a comment

Pre-Hominidae ancestry

So when appeared Purgatorius ceratops our common ancestor with other Hominidae?

“Around 65 million years ago, these little shrew-like creatures were climbing around in the threes of Western North America, munching on insect and fruit… But Purgatorius is was kind of mysterious because it didn’t have what we think as the classic primate traits, like forward facing eyes, or nails instead of claws.”

Purgatorius is a genus of six extinct eutherian species typically believed to be the earliest example of a primate or a proto-primate, a primatomorph precursor to the Plesiadapiformes, dating to as old as 66 million years ago.[1]

References

[1]  O’Leary, M. A.; et al. (2013). “The placental mammal ancestor and the post–K-Pg radiation of placentals”Science339 (6120): 662–667. Bibcode:2013Sci…339..662Odoi:10.1126/science.1229237PMID23393258.

Purgatorius. Human ancestor
Purgatorius. Human ancestor
Evolution Facts - Purgatorius pre human
Evolution Facts – Purgatorius pre human
Posted on Leave a comment

How reptiles evolved?

Parareptilia is a subclass of reptiles with a variously range of organisms considered completely extinct. The validity of this therm relies on the phylogenetic position of turtles which their relationship with other reptilian groups are uncertain.

So what was the transition group class (if existed) between pre-reptiles and actual reptiles?

Check the iOS app I made to identify Snakes using powerful AI:

Get Appstore
Get Snake Identifier iOS app

It is possible to reconstruct the Tree of Life with latest science technologies to give life to ancient genetics and ancestors?

How was the evolution of early reptiles?

Does reptiles come from water or land?

Does reptiles have unique spacers and patterns on their DNA such as bacteria?

Bunostegos used to have four limbs, to walk directly on land. This information suggests that it could be the first tetrapod with a fully erect gait.

African and Brazilian Sauna often are very similar in traits, in genomes, in origins.

Reptilia Branches- Tree of Life
Reptilia Branches- Tree of Life
How Reptilia evolved?
How Reptiles evolved?
Evolution on Reptiles
Evolution on Reptiles
Posted on Leave a comment

Genome Editing with CRISPR-Cas9

Genome Editing CRISPR/Cas9

CRISPR will rise like never before, genetic engineering is a scientific reality and will make humanity rise, again!

This animation depicts the CRISPR-Cas9 method for genome editing – a powerful new technology with many applications in biomedical research, including the potential to treat human genetic disease. Feng Zhang, a leader in the development of this technology, is a faculty member at MIT, an investigator at the McGovern Institute for Brain Research, and a core member of the Broad Institute. Further information can be found on Prof. Zhang’s website at http://zlab.mit.edu .

Posted on Leave a comment

What is CRISPR?

What is CRISPR?

Yes diseases could he healed and new “species” of humans will be possible through CRISPR one of the greatest achievements of science in human history! You can engineer a new embryo to remove the diseases from her/him.

Jennifer Doudna and Emanuelle Charpentier, we as humanity are so thankful for their huge results, by working hard and being scientists leads.

Posted on Leave a comment

Introduction to Snapgene

SnapGene

SnapGene is molecular biology software that allows users to plan, visualize, and document molecular biology procedures. Select the DNA fragments that you wish to fuse, and SnapGene will design the primers. It simplifies the planning of a Gibson Assembly reaction, and automates the primer design. SnapGene automatically records the steps in a cloning project. Each time you edit a sequence or simulate cloning or PCR or mutagenesis, the procedure is automatically logged in a graphical history.

http://kb.mit.edu/confluence/pages/viewpage.action?pageId=154184583